SARS-CoV-2 infection induces long-lived bone marrow plasma cells in humans



Long-lived bone marrow plasma cells (BMPCs) are a persistent and essential source of protective antibodies1,2,3,4,5,6,7. Individuals who have recovered from COVID-19 have a substantially lower risk of reinfection with SARS-CoV-28,9,10. Nonetheless, it has been reported that levels of anti-SARS-CoV-2 serum antibodies decrease rapidly in the first few months after infection, raising concerns that long-lived BMPCs may not be generated and humoral immunity against SARS-CoV-2 may be short-lived11,12,13. Here we show that in convalescent individuals who had experienced mild SARS-CoV-2 infections (n = 77), levels of serum anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (S) antibodies declined rapidly in the first 4 months after infection and then more gradually over the following 7 months, remaining detectable at least 11 months after infection. Anti-S antibody titres correlated with the frequency of S-specific plasma cells in bone marrow aspirates from 18 individuals who had recovered from COVID-19 at 7 to 8 months after infection. S-specific BMPCs were not detected in aspirates from 11 healthy individuals with no history of SARS-CoV-2 infection. We show that S-binding BMPCs are quiescent, which suggests that they are part of a stable compartment. Consistently, circulating resting memory B cells directed against SARS-CoV-2 S were detected in the convalescent individuals. Overall, our results indicate that mild infection with SARS-CoV-2 induces robust antigen-specific, long-lived humoral immune memory in humans.


Reinfections by seasonal coronaviruses occur 6 to 12 months after the previous infection, indicating that protective immunity against these viruses may be short-lived14,15. Early reports documenting rapidly declining antibody titres in the first few months after infection in individuals who had recovered from COVID-19 suggested that protective immunity against SARS-CoV-2 might be similarly transient11,12,13. It was also suggested that infection with SARS-CoV-2 could fail to elicit a functional germinal centre response, which would interfere with the generation of long-lived plasma cells3,4,5,7,16. More recent reports analysing samples that were collected approximately 4 to 6 months after infection indicate that SARS-CoV-2 antibody titres decline more slowly than in the initial months after infection8,17,18,19,20,21. Durable serum antibody titres are maintained by long-lived plasma cells—non-replicating, antigen-specific plasma cells that are detected in the bone marrow long after the clearance of the antigen1,2,3,4,5,6,7. We sought to determine whether they were detectable in convalescent individuals approximately 7 months after SARS-CoV-2 infection.



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